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西安翻译培训:not only but also用法和倒装用法
发布时间:2010-1-12  阅读次数:25726  字体大小: 【】 【】【
西安翻译培训:not only…but also用法和倒装用法
  
1. not only … but also 应连接两个相对称的并列成分。例如:
  
  Not only Mr. Lin but also his son joined the Party two years ago. (连接两个主语)
  I not only play tennis but also practise shooting. (连接两个谓语动词)
  He plays not only the piano but also the violin. (连接两个宾语)
They speak English not only in class but also in the dormitory. (连接两个地点状语)
  
>>             注 1 : She not only sings well but also dances beautifully. = She doesn't only sing well but also dances beautifully.
>>              注 2 :句子 He not only plays the piano but also the violin 不是好的文体,因为 but also 之后的成分与 not only 之后的成分不对称。
  
2. not only … but also 连接两个分句,并且 not only 位于句首时,第一个分句中的主语和谓语要部分倒装。例如:
  
Not only does the sun give us light but also it gives us heat.(如果主语为同一人,可以省略)
例如:Not only does the sun give us light but also (it) gives us heat.
  Not only did he speak English correctly, but also he speaks it fluently.
Not only is this young man clever but also he is hardworking.
  
3. not only … but also 不能用在否定句中。例如:
  
  误: They don't fear not only hardship but also death.
  正: They fear neither hardship nor death.
            正: They don't fear either hardship or death.
  
4. not only … but also 连接两个主语时,谓语动词要和与其最近的主语保持人称和数的一致。例如:
  
Not only the students but also the teacher was against the plan. / Not only the teacher but also the students were against the plan.
  
5. not only … but also 中的 not only 不能分开使用,但 but also 却可以分开使用。例如:
  
The area was not only hit by an unexpected heavy rain, but some bridges were also washed away.
  
6. not only … but also 连接两个并列成分时,可以省略 but 或 also ,也可以把 but also 都省略掉。例如:
  
  I not only heard it but ( also ) saw it.
  He was not only compelled to stay at home, ( but ) also forbidden to see his friend.
  She not only finished the task ahead of time, ( but also ) she came to help us.
  
7. 也可用 but … too / as well 替代 not only … but also 中的 but also .例如:
  
She not only sang well but danced gracefully too ( or as well )
  
8. 也可以用 besides, furthermore, moreover, in addition 等替代 not only … but also 中的 but also .例如:
  
  Not only was there no food, but also (或 furthermore, besides, moreover, in addition ) there was no water.
  
9. 也可用 merely, just, simply 等替代 not only … but also 中的 only .例如:
  
They not merely ( or just, simply ) broke into his office and stole his books but also tore up his manuscripts.
  
10. not only A but also B = B as well as A但前者的强调重点在 B ;后者的强调重点也在 B .(汉译时,要先译 as well as 后面的词)例如:
  
  The child is not only healthy but also lively. ( = The child is lively as well as healthy. )这孩子既健康又活泼。
  It concerns not only me but also you. ( = It concerns you as well as me. )
这件事不但与我有关,而且也与你有关。
  
  
主要用法就是谓语动词要遵循“就近一致原则”,Not only the students but also the teacher was invited. 不仅学生们被邀请,而且那位教师也被邀请了。
  
“not only … but also …”是一个并列连词词组,其意思基本等于“both … and …”,但侧重点放在“but also”上,另外该词组使用时须遵守一定的规则,如要求对称,倒装及主谓一致等。以下两个句子往往被看作是欠妥或错误的:
  
1. *Sitting up late last night, Tom not only read the assignment but also many poems by his favorite poet.
2. *Not only the students but also the teacher were invited.
  
上述两句第一句欠妥,第二句是错误的,应分别改为:1. Sitting up late last night, Tom read not only the assignment but also many poems by his favorite poet. 昨晚汤姆熬至深夜,不仅看了课外作业,而且读了他最喜欢的一位诗人的许多诗歌。 2. Not only the students but also the teacher was invited. 不仅学生们被邀请,而且那位教师也被邀请了。 下面就来谈谈正确使用该词组时须注意的几点事项及其常见的几种变体形式。
  
使用not only … but also 时须注意的几点:
  
1. not only与but also后面所连接的词的词性必须对等:
  
(1) Frankin was considered not only an inventor, but also a statesman. 富兰克林不仅被看作发明家,而且被看作政治家。
(2) The nurse was not only competent but also kind. 这位护士不仅能干而且亲切和蔼。 (3) They not only broke into his office and stole his books, but also tore up his manuscripts. 他们不仅闯进他的办公室,偷走了他的书,而且还撕掉了他的手稿。
(4) Not only you but also she has to attend the ceremony. 不令你而且她也得参加典礼。
(5) In production, we should always keep an eye not only on quantity but also on quality. 在生产中,我们不仅要关注数量,而且要关注质量。
(6) They completed the project not only punctually but also perfectly. 他们不仅准时完成工程,而且完成得很出色。
  
2. not only只能连用,而but also既可连用,也可分开用:
  
a. He speaks not only English, but also French. 他不仅说英语,还说法语。 b. Television is not only boring, but it also wastes a lot of time. 电视不仅乏味,而且还浪费许多时间。 c. She was not only compelled to stay at home, but she was also forbidden to see her friends. 她不仅被强迫蹲在家中,而且被禁止去看朋友。
  
3.谓语动词的数应与but also后主语的数保持一致:
  
Not only you but also Mr. Zhang teaches in this college. 不仅你,张老师也在此学院教书。
  
4. not only放在句首,后接句子时要用倒装结构:
  
(1) Not only should proletarians emancipate themselves but also the whole mankind. 无产者不仅要解放他们自己,而且要解放全人类。
(2) Not only does television appeal to those who can read but to those who can't. 电视不仅吸引阅读的人,而且也吸引了不会阅读的人。
(3) Not only was everything Albert Einstein had taken away but also his citizenship was deprived of. 爱因斯坦的财产不仅被掳掠一空,而且他的德国国籍也被剥夺了。
(4) Not only had the poor man been fined, but also he had been sent to prison. 这个可怜的人不仅被罚款,而且还被送进了监狱。 二、not only,but also的几种常见的变体形式:
  
1.not only的变体形式: 常见的变体有not just, not merely, not simply, not solely等。
  
(1) Such work is not just devalued in that country, its nature is widely misunderstood. 这种工作在那个国家不但被贬低,而且工作的性质也被许多人误解。
(2) There is not merely concision in these lines but also elegance. 这些台词写得不仅乘法,而且优雅。
(3) Not simply did he teach school, but he wrote novels. 他不仅教书,也写小说。
(4) This novel is not solely suitable for us in studying modern fiction but can also be used in the teaching. 这本小说不但适合我们研究现代小说,而且能用于教学。
  
2. but also的变体形式: a: 省去also,只留but;b: 省去but,只留also;c: but…as well;d: but also全部省略。
  
(1) Scarlett quaked lest she and Frank lose not only their freedom but the house, the store and mill. 斯佳丽害怕得发抖,惟恐她与弗兰克不仅会失去自由,而且还会失去房屋、商店及锯木厂。
(2) She's not only an excellent housewife also a first class mathematician. 她不仅是一个出色的家庭主妇,而且是一位一流的数学家。
(3) Not only does he write the words to the songs, but he composes the music as well. 他不仅给歌曲写词,也谱曲。
(4) Such a change would improve not only his social image but his health as well. 这样的变化不仅会提高他的社会形象,而且会改善他的健康。
(5) Not only did I hear the car, I actually saw it crash. 我不仅听见了车的声音,而且还亲眼看见了那辆车撞坏了。
  
否定词开头作部分倒装
  
如 Not only…but also, Hardly/Scarcely…when, No sooner… than
Not only did he refuse the gift, he also severely criticized the sender.
Hardly had she gone out when a student came to visit her.
No sooner had she gone out than a student came to visit her.
  
典型例题
No sooner___ than it began to rain heavily.
A. the game began B. has the game begun
C. did the game begin D. had the game begun
答案D. 以具有否定意义的副词放在句首时,一般采用倒装句(谓语前置)。这类表示否定意义的词有never, seldom, scarcely, little, few, not, hardly, 以及not only…but (also), no sooner…than, hardly… when scarcely… when 等等。
  
注意:只有当Not only… but also连接两个分句时,才在第一个分句用倒装结构。如果置于句首的Not only… but also仅连接两个并列词语,不可用倒装结构。
Not only you but also I am fond of music.
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